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PREECLAMPSIA : CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENTS

 What is preeclampsia symptoms?

preeclampsia symptoms is when you have high blood pressure and mostly protein in your urine during pregnancy or it can happen after delivery. In Preeclampsia you may also have low clotting factors (platelets) in your blood or you have indicators of kidney or liver trouble.



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Preeclampsia and Eclampsia


Preeclampsia or preeclampsia symptoms generally happens after the 20th week of pregnancy. But in some cases it occurs earlier too or it can happen after delivery also.

Now the one step ahead Eclampsia is a severe progression of preeclampsia. In Eclampsia, high blood pressure results in seizures. Like preeclampsia, eclampsia occurs during pregnancy or, rarely, after delivery.

In an average 5 percent of Trusted Source of all pregnant women get preeclampsia.



What causes preeclampsia?


It's can’t yet identify one single cause of preeclampsia, but there are some potential causes which are being explored.


These are the potential causes of preeclampsia :


  • Genetic factors,


  • Blood vessel problems,


  • Autoimmune disorders,


There are some risk factors also, that can increase your chances of developing preeclampsia.


These are the risk factor of developing preeclampsia.


  • If you are being pregnant with multiple fetuses


  • If you over the age of 35


  • Being pregnant for the first time


  • If you are obese


  • If you have a history of high blood pressure


  • If you have a history of diabetes


  • If you have a history of a kidney disorder


These is so true that till now nothing can definitively prevent this condition. Some of the Doctors may recommend that to take baby aspirin after first trimester to help prevent it.


Early and consistent prenatal care can help your health provider diagnose preeclampsia sooner and avoid complications. Having a good diagnosis will allow your doctor to provide you with proper monitoring until your delivery date.


Symptoms of preeclampsia


You have to remember that you might not notice any symptoms of preeclampsia. If you do develop symptoms, there are some common ones include:


  • Persistent headache


  • Abnormal swelling in your hands and face


  • Sudden weight gain


  • Changes in your vision


  • Pain in the right upper abdomen


  • During pregnancy your doctor may find that your blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg or higher than that. Urine test and blood tests can also show protein in your urine, abnormal liver enzymes, and low platelet levels.


  • At that point, your gynecologist may do a nonstress test to monitor your fetus. A nonstress test is a simple test or exam that measures the changes of heart rate, as the fetus moves. Your doctor may done an ultrasound to check your fluid levels and the health of the fetus.

Complications of preeclampsia


In your pregnancy the more severe your preeclampsia and the earlier it occurs during pregnancy, the risks is greater for you and your baby. Preeclampsia may require induced labor and pre term delivery.


Cesarean delivery (C-section) may be necessary if there are obstetric or clinical conditions that require a speedy delivery. Vaginal delivery is also possible if your doctor may recommend a scheduled .


Your obstetric provider will talk with you for what type of delivery is right for your condition.


Complications of preeclampsia may include:


  • Preterm birth


In your pregnancy if you have preeclampsia with severe features, you may need to be delivered early, to save the life of you and your baby. Prematurity of your unborn can lead to breathing and other problems for your baby. Your doctor will help you understand when is the ideal time for your delivery.


  • Fetal growth restriction


Preeclampsia is a situation, which affects the arteries carrying blood to the placenta. If your placenta doesn't get enough blood, your baby may receive small amount of blood and oxygen and fewer nutrients also.
This condition can lead to slow growth known as fetal growth restriction, Fetal low birth weight or preterm birth.

  • Placental abruption. 


During pregnancy Preeclampsia increases your risk of placental abruption, It is the condition in which the placenta separates from the inner wall of your uterus before delivery. Serious abruption can lead to heavy bleeding, which can be life-threatening for both you and your baby.


  • HELLP syndrome. HELLP —


Its stands for hemolysis (the destruction of red blood cells). It Elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count.

HELLP syndrome is a more severe form of preeclampsia, and it can rapidly become life-threatening for both you and your unborn baby.


Symptoms of HELLP syndrome


It include vomiting and nausea ,upper right abdominal pain and headache.
 HELLP syndrome is more dangerous because it can cause damage to several organ systems.

It may develop suddenly, even before  your high blood pressure is detected or it may develop without any symptoms at all.


  • Eclampsia. 

Eclampsia cause when preeclampsia isn't controlled, eclampsia is essentially preeclampsia plus seizures — can develop.
It is very difficult to predict that which of the patient will have preeclampsia that is severe enough to result in eclampsia.

Sometimes, there are no symptoms or warning signs to predict eclampsia. Because eclampsia can have serious consequences for both mom and your unborn. Delivery becomes necessary, regardless of how far along the pregnancy is.


  • Other organ damage.


In Preeclampsia your kidneys, lung, liver, heart or eyes may result in damage, and may cause a stroke or other brain injury. The amount of injury to other organs depends on the severity level of preeclampsia.


  • Cardiovascular disease.

 

Having preeclampsia during pregnancy can increase your risk of future heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease. The risk is even bigger if you've had preeclampsia more than once or you've had a preterm delivery. If you want to minimize this risk, after delivery try to maintain your ideal weight, eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, exercise regularly, and don't smoke.



What is the treatment for preeclampsia?


Delivery of the baby is the recommended treatment for preeclampsia during pregnancy . In most of the cases, only this can prevents the disease from progressing.


Delivery


If patients at week 37 or later, your doctor may induce labor. At this point, Cause at this week the baby has developed enough and isn’t considered premature baby.


If the patient have preeclampsia prior to 37 weeks, gynecologist will consider both baby and mother's health in deciding the timing for your delivery. This health condition depends on many factors, including your baby’s gestational age, whether or not labor has begun, and how severe the disease has become.


Delivery of the baby and placenta should resolve the condition.


Other treatments during pregnancy


  • In some of the preeclampsia cases, doctor may be given medications to help lower patient's blood pressure. Some of the patient may also be given medications to prevent seizures, a possible complication of preeclampsia.


  • Your health provider may want to admit you to the hospital for more thoroughly monitoring. In some of the cases, you might be given intravenous  medications to lower your blood pressure or steroid injections to help  baby’s lungs develop quicker.

  • The preeclampsia. management is guided by whether the disease is considered mild or severe.


The signs of severe preeclampsia symptoms  include:


  • Mild to sever changes in the fetal heart rate that indicate distress


  • Fluid in the lungs


  • Seizures


  • Impaired kidney or liver function


  • Abdominal pain


You should immediate consult to your doctor if you notice any abnormal signs or symptoms during your pregnancy.
Your main concern should be your baby's health and also your health.


Preeclampsia treatments after delivery


  • Once your baby is delivered, preeclampsia symptoms should resolve automatically. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, said that most of the women, will have normal blood pressure readings 48 hours after delivery.


  • Research also found that for most women with preeclampsia,  symptoms resolve, also liver and kidney function return to normal within a few months after delivery.


  • But it's true that, in some cases, blood pressure can become elevated again a few days after delivery.Only For this reason, A follow-up care with your doctor and regular blood pressure checks are important even after the delivery .


Although it's very rare that, preeclampsia can occur in the postpartum period following a normal pregnancy. So, even after an uncomplicated pregnancy, you should see your doctor if you’ve recently had a baby and notice the over mentioned symptoms.


What are the complications of preeclampsia?


Preeclampsia can be life-threatening for both mother and child if left untreated. It is a very serious condition.


Other complications of Preeclampsia include:


  • kidney failure


  • placental abruption (breaking away of the placenta from the uterine wall)


  • bleeding problems due to low platelet levels


  • damage to the liver


  • pulmonary edema


Complications for your newborn baby can also occur if they’re born too early due to efforts to resolve preeclampsia.


The Conclusion 

  • During your pregnancy, it’s very important to keep you and your baby as healthy as possible. Eating a healthy diet, taking folic acid with prenatal vitamins , and going for regular prenatal care checkups is very important.


  • Preeclampsia can sometimes occur even with proper care , during pregnancy or after delivery. Its can be very dangerous for both you and your unborn baby.

  • Talk with your health provider immediately about things you can do to reduce your risk of preeclampsia and know about the warning signs. If it is necessary, they may refer you to a maternal-fetal medicine specialist for additional care.

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